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Selon une nouvelle étude, l'Allemagne aurait investi 37 milliards EUR, soit 1,5 % de son PIB, pour réduire l'impact du changement climatique

-- En 2012, les entreprises et les ménages allemands ont contribué à hauteur de 95 % du financement total lié au climat en Allemagne. KfW Bankengruppe et les incitations gouvernementales ont joué un rôle fondamental.

BERLIN, 30 novembre 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) a publié aujourd'hui une nouvelle étude qui offre la première vue d'ensemble complète sur la manière dont les entreprises, les ménages et le gouvernement allemands financent l'énergie renouvelable et l'efficacité énergétique. Le rapport intitulé « The German Landscape of Climate Finance » (Contexte du financement lié au climat en Allemagne) montre qu'en 2012 l'Allemagne a investi 1,5 % de son PIB, soit 37 milliards EUR, dans des mesures visant à réduire l'impact du changement climatique.

Les capitaux privés contribuent considérablement aux investissements liés au climat en Allemagne. En 2010, la majorité du financement lié au climat (22 milliards EUR) provenait d'entreprises issues de tous les secteurs de l'économie, notamment des agriculteurs, des services publics liés à l'énergie et des entreprises industrielles et commerciales. Les ménages ont investi la somme considérable de 14 milliards EUR.

D'après CPI, les incitations gouvernementales contribuent significativement à débloquer des capitaux privés au profit du financement lié au climat en Allemagne. Près de la moitié des investissements privés liés au climat (16,5 milliards EUR) ont été appuyés par des prêts à faible taux d'intérêt offerts par des banques publiques comme KfW ou Rentenbank.

« Il incombe au gouvernement de créer un contexte favorable aux investissements des entreprises et des ménages dans l'énergie renouvelable et l'efficacité énergétique. En effet, les prêts à faible taux d'intérêt garantis par le gouvernement et des politiques telles que la tarification incitative semblent avoir considérablement contribué à encourager ces investissements privés », a déclaré Barbara Buchner, directrice de CPI Europe.

Le gouvernement allemand est déterminé à réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de 80-95 % d'ici 2050 et à supprimer progressivement l'énergie nucléaire d'ici 2022. Ces objectifs font de l'Allemagne un leader mondial en matière d'efforts d'atténuation des changements climatiques nationaux, mais exigent également des investissements significatifs qui vont au-delà des fonds publics disponibles. Par conséquent, la part importante du financement privé peut être interprétée comme un signe positif dans la stratégie de l'Allemagne visant la réduction des émissions de carbone.

Le rapport a également examiné l'utilisation du financement lié au climat en Allemagne, et présente le montant des investissements de capitaux totaux dans l'énergie renouvelable et les investissements différentiels dans l'efficacité énergétique. La génération d'énergie renouvelable représentait la majorité des investissements allemands liés au climat en 2010, avec 26,6 milliards EUR. Les projets d'énergie renouvelable à petite échelle, tels que des installations solaires photovoltaïques résidentielles, constituaient 75 % des investissements dans l'énergie renouvelable, alors que le 25 % restant était composé de projets à grande échelle. Les investissements dans l'efficacité énergétique s'élevaient à 7,2 milliards EUR, dont 3,3 milliards EUR étaient destinés à d'autres investissements spécifiques liés au climat.

Le rapport « The German Landscape of Climate Finance » est à ce jour l'analyse des flux de financement liés au climat la plus exhaustive en Allemagne, et jette les bases des discussions autour du financement allemand lié au climat et de l'efficacité du cadre politique actuel sur le climat. Le rapport souligne également des lacunes au niveau des données et des rapports quant au suivi du financement national lié au climat. Par exemple, les besoins de financement globaux de l'Allemagne restent indéterminés et il n'est pas clair si le niveau de financement actuel est suffisant pour atteindre les objectifs de l'Allemagne en matière de climat et d'énergie.

« Si nous souhaitons que la transition énergétique de l'Allemagne soit réussie, et que d'autres pays apprennent de notre expérience, nous devons mieux comprendre les flux de financement actuels ainsi que l'impact des politiques en place sur les investissements », a précisé Ingmar Juergens, directeur adjoint de CPI Berlin.

Le rapport « German Landscape of Climate Finance » s'inscrit dans les efforts du Climate Policy Initiative visant à suivre le financement lié au climat dans le monde. Une autre étude de CPI intitulée « The Global Climate Finance Landscape 2012 » (Contexte mondial du financement lié au climat en 2012) qui sera publiée le 3 décembre 2012 offre une évaluation complète des flux de financement lié au climat à l'échelle planétaire.

Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) est un organisme mondial d'analyse et de conseil consacré à l'efficacité des politiques publiques, dont la mission consiste à évaluer, à identifier et à appuyer les efforts des pays pour parvenir à une croissance à faible intensité de carbone. Climate Policy Initiative est un organisme indépendant à but non lucratif  bénéficiant du soutien de longue date de George Soros. CPI a son siège social à San Francisco et possède des bureaux régionaux à Berlin, Beijing, Hyderabad, Jakarta, Rio de Janeiro et à Venise.

Les auteurs du rapport sont disponibles pour des entretiens à Berlin et à Doha.

Vous pouvez consulter les rapports sur notre site Web au : www.ClimatePolicyInitiative.org

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