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Les financements mondiaux annuels liés au climat atteignent 364 milliards USD, un chiffre insuffisant pour limiter le réchauffement climatique à deux degrés Celsius

DOHA, Qatar, 3 décembre 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Un nouveau rapport publié aujourd'hui, intitulé The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2012 (Contexte mondial du financement lié au climat 2012) et produit par Climate Policy Initiative (CPI), montre que les investissements annuels mondiaux pour limiter le changement climatique ont atteint environ 364 milliards USD en 2010/2011.

Ce chiffre, bien qu'important, est inférieur à la plupart des estimations sur les investissements nécessaires pour limiter le réchauffement climatique à deux degrés Celsius. D'après l'Agence internationale de l'énergie, il faudrait chaque année environ 1000 milliards USD d'investissements supplémentaires dans le seul secteur de l'énergie pour promouvoir une croissance à faibles émissions de carbone. Une somme bien plus importante sera nécessaire pour parvenir à un développement résilient au changement climatique au niveau mondial.

Bénéficier d'une vision globale des flux financiers liés au climat est essentiel pour comprendre le type et l'ampleur du soutien disponible afin de limiter et faire face au changement climatique. Le rapport The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2012 fournit les données les plus complètes sur les efforts réalisés à ce jour en matière de représentation cartographique des financements mondiaux liés au climat.

Selon ce rapport, le secteur privé a constitué la principale source de financement de la lutte contre le changement climatique au niveau mondial, contribuant à hauteur de 217 à 243 milliards USD, émanant essentiellement des entreprises et des développeurs de projets dans les énergies renouvelables. Les investissements du secteur public ont totalisé entre 16 et 23 milliards USD à l'échelle mondiale. La plupart des investissements provenant du secteur public ont joué un rôle de catalyseur pour les investissements privés par le biais de mécanismes d'incitation et de subventions ayant contribué à réduire les coûts d'investissement.

Les organisations intermédiaires des secteurs public et privé telles que les banques nationales de développement et les banques commerciales ont également joué un rôle important, levant et répartissant des fonds de 110 à 120 milliards USD, et offrant souvent un soutien à des projets qui sans cela ne seraient pas viables.

« Le fait que les politiques publiques et les incitations commencent à stimuler l'investissement privé est une bonne nouvelle pour les décideurs politiques disposant de budgets limités », a déclaré Barbara Buchner, directrice de CPI Europe et l'une des principales auteures du rapport. « Toutefois, le niveau des investissements disponibles est toujours inférieur à la somme totale nécessaire pour limiter le réchauffement climatique à deux degrés Celsius. Nous devons nous concentrer sur les politiques qui fonctionnent et agir au plus vite pour les étendre à travers le monde ».

L'Allemagne est un pays vers lequel on pourrait se tourner pour avoir des exemples sur les manières d'encourager l'investissement privé. Selon un rapport connexe de CPI, intitulé The German Climate Finance Landscape (Contexte du financement lié au climat en Allemagne), qui sera publié dans le courant du mois, le secteur privé a contribué à hauteur de plus de 95 % du financement total lié au climat en Allemagne, environ la moitié de ce financement a été soutenu par des prêts assortis de conditions avantageuses alloués par des banques publiques de développement.

Le rapport Global Landscape fournit également des perspectives sur la manière dont a été utilisé le financement lié au climat et sur son affectation. Les économies émergentes ont été les principales bénéficiaires de ce financement lié au climat, mais elles ont également représenté des sources importantes. Environ un tiers des investissements mondiaux destinés à atténuer les changements climatiques ont eu lieu en Chine, au Brésil et en Inde, une part significative de ces investissements a été levée en interne et investie en faveur de mandats nationaux de développement.

Pour obtenir de plus amples informations, ou pour télécharger le rapport, veuillez consulter le site www.ClimatePolicyInitiative.org.

Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) est un organisme mondial d'analyse et de conseil consacré à l'efficacité des politiques publiques dont la mission consiste à évaluer, diagnostiquer et appuyer les efforts des pays pour parvenir à une croissance à faibles émissions de carbone. Climate Policy Initiative est un organisme indépendant à but non lucratif bénéficiant du soutien de longue date de George Soros. CPI a son siège social à San Francisco et possède des bureaux régionaux à Berlin, Beijing, Hyderabad, Jakarta, Rio de Janeiro et Venise.

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