Welcome!

Apache Authors: William Schmarzo, Christopher Harrold, Elizabeth White, Talend Inc., Adrian Bridgwater

Blog Feed Post

Getting the maximum performance of your Java processes

therore-concurrent provides self-tuning thread-pools helping you to make the most of your system.

Recently, I have been working in the optimization of an OLTP system. The software has a SEDA architecture (Staged Event Driven Architecture) with lots of threads doing little works. I had to fight with the hard task of adjusting a hundred of parameters. Each of those parameters affected some others and so on.

For example if the number of concurrent database connections is set too low, it would cause a contention in getting connections. On the contrary, if that number is set too high, it could cause a lock-contention in the database when the threads want to access to some shared resources (index, row, block, etc.)

Even more, not always the processing of an event requires the same type of resources. A sudden change in the type of events that are being treated, can turn an optimal configuration into a suboptimal.

One of the most significant parameters is the number of threads assigned for each component. It is difficult to choose a good value if you don’t know how much the threads use each type of resource and how much are they coupled between each other.

Usually certain tasks have a higher priority and should be processed as soon as possible. This further complicates the choice of the configuration. Enforcing priorities and maximizing throughputs are opposite goals therefore it is necessary to define the scope of both.

In my experience a huge configurability can work against you. In a medium/big SOA system with a lot of service communications and complex workload profiles that even change over time, is almost impossible to get the optimal value for each of those parameters. Because of that I found interesting to develop a library that might be able to adapt quickly at runtime in order to make the most of the system.

Self-tuning thread-pool

Nowadays creating threads manually is not very common. Instead of that, thread-pools are frequently used. A thread-pool manages the creation and allocation of threads. JDK comes with some interesting and useful classes for managing threads. I list two of the most important:

  • ThreadPoolExecutor is a very flexible and configurable thread-pool that supports customization of queue size, minimum and maximum pool size, keep-alive time, etc.
  • Executors is a convenient class that creates thread-pools for the most usual cases.

I have developed the library therore-concurrent that takes advantage of those classes and extends some functionalities. The library contains analogous to the above classes.

  • SelfTuningExecutorService is a thread-pool that implements a mechanism for searching a good value for the pool size. The algorithm tries to maximize the throughput respecting the thread-pool priorities.
  • SelfTuningExecutors acts as the factory of SelfTuningExecutorService. It is recommended to use it as a singleton.

The following charts show how quickly SelfTuningExecutorService finds the optimal value.

selftuning_poolsize_executions_chart

Using SelfTuningExecutors directly

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • The following snippet shows how can it be used.
  • SelfTuningExecutors executors = SelfTuningExecutors.defaultSelfTuningExecutors();
    ExecutorServicce service = executors.newSelfTuningExecutor("executor-for-test", corePoolSize, initPoolSize
           , maximumPoolSize, priority, queueSize);
    service.execute(task);
    

The only new parameters are initPoolSize and priority.

  • initPoolSize is the initial amount of threads assigned to the pool.
  • priority is a positive number that works for SelfTuningExecutorService to limit the number of threads of this pool regarding others.

Integrating SelfTuningExecutors with Quartz Scheduler

Quartz-Scheduler has his own thread-pool interface and its name is “ThreadPool” (not surprise). The class SelfTuningThreadPool that is in the artifact therore-concurrent-quartz implements such interface. Integrating it is very easy, follow these steps:

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent-quartz</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • Change the configuration properties of quartz
  • # org.quartz.threadPool.class = org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool
    # org.quartz.threadPool.threadCount = 1
    # org.quartz.threadPool.threadPriority = 5
    org.quartz.threadPool.class = net.therore.concurrent.quartz.SelfTuningThreadPool
    org.quartz.threadPool.corePoolSize = 1
    org.quartz.threadPool.initPoolSize = 1
    org.quartz.threadPool.maximumPoolSize = 100
    org.quartz.threadPool.priority = 5
    org.quartz.threadPool.queueSize = 2
    

Integrating SelfTuningExecutors with Apache Camel

I love Apache Camel. It offers a lot of components supporting integration with different technologies. But if none of them actually help you yet, it’s pretty easy to make your own component.

Camel’s team has thought very well the threading model. They use the concept (and interface) of ThreadPoolProfile which is a kind of thread-pool-template that you can use to instantiate several pools with the same configuration. If that is not enough, you can program your own implementation of ExecutorServiceManager, the Camel’s thread-pool provider. Simplifying, think about it like the Executors class of the JDK.

I’ve just done that, SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager is the name of my own implementation of ExecutorServiceManager. It is located in other maven module therore-concurrent-camel. I’ll explain how to use it.

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent-camel</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • The following snippet contains two connected routes with SEDA component and SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager
  • SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager executorManager = new SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager(context);
    context.setExecutorServiceManager(executorManager);
    ThreadPoolProfile profile = new ThreadPoolProfile();
    profile.setId("self-tuning-profile");
    profile.setMaxPoolSize(100);
    profile.setMaxQueueSize(100);
    profile.setDefaultProfile(true);
    executorManager.setDefaultThreadPoolProfile(profile);        
    
    final String sedaEndpointUri = "seda:myseda?blockWhenFull=true&size=1";
    context.addRoutes(new RouteBuilder() {
       @Override
       public void configure() throws Exception {
           from("direct:in")
           .to(sedaEndpointUri);
       }
    });
    context.addRoutes(new RouteBuilder() {
       @Override
       public void configure() throws Exception {
           from(sedaEndpointUri)
           .threads(1, 100)
           .to("bean:mybean");
       }
    });
    
    ProducerTemplate template = context.createProducerTemplate();
    context.start();
    for (int i=0; i<ITERATIONS; i++) {
       template.sendBody("direct:in", "dummy string");
    }
    

Summary

I have figured out that there are many elements that might turn into selftuning ones. I chose ThreadPool because from my point of view is one of the most important, used and easy to test element.

Moreover, most of the modern libraries and frameworks feature different ways to extend their factories, providers and templates. All of that aims to develop general purpose classes and integrate them with lots of frameworks.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Alfredo Diaz

Alfredo Diaz is a Java EE Architect with over 10 years of experience. He is an expert in SOA, real-time processing, scalability and HA. He is an Agile enthusiast.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
The IoTs will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and share the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the development proc...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusion, a leading provider of cloud services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Fusion, a leading provider of integrated cloud solutions to small, medium and large businesses, is the industry's single source for the cloud. Fusion's advanced, proprietary cloud service platform enables the integration of leading edge solutions in the cloud, including cloud...
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
The IoT has the potential to create a renaissance of manufacturing in the US and elsewhere. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Florent Solt, CTO and chief architect of Netvibes, will discuss how the expected exponential increase in the amount of data that will be processed, transported, stored, and accessed means there will be a huge demand for smart technologies to deliver it. Florent Solt is the CTO and chief architect of Netvibes. Prior to joining Netvibes in 2007, he co-founded Rift Technol...
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified – now it's a component-based well-performing framework. This immersive one-day workshop at 18th Cloud Expo, led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay, will provide you with everything you wanted to know about Angular 2.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...