|By Mike Carey||
|July 1, 2003 12:00 AM EDT||
In Part I of this article (XML-J, Vol. 4, issue 6), we introduced the enterprise information integration (EII) problem and explained how the XML query language XQuery and related technologies - specifically XML, XML Schema, and Web services - are central to enabling this age-old problem to be successfully addressed at last.
We provided a technical overview of the XQuery language and presented a simple "single view of Customer" example to illustrate XQuery's role in the EII domain. The example was based on an electronics retailer that wanted to share customer information across three portals - portals for customer self-service, credit approval, and product service. The information to be integrated resided in a variety of back-end information sources, including two relational database management systems, an SAP system, and a Web service.
In this article, our XQuery/EII saga continues. In this installment, we look at how EII relates to two other technologies designed for integration tasks, namely enterprise application integration (EAI) and extract-transform-load (ETL) tools. We also take a brief look at BEA Liquid Data for WebLogic, an XQuery-based EII offering, and discuss how XQuery and Liquid Data were put to use recently in a telecommunications-related customer project.
What About EAI?
Given the industry buzz around EAI today, a natural question about EII is "so why bother?" That is, why isn't a modern EAI solution alone - for example, a workflow engine with XML-based data transformation capabilities - sufficient to solve the EII problem? The answer is, in principle, that EAI is in fact sufficient to solve the EII problem. A developer could always choose to hand-build a set of workflows, writing one workflow per application-level "query" to deliver the desired information back to the calling applications. In the example from Part I of this article, three hand-tailored workflows could instead be written to provide information retrieval capabilities comparable to our XQuery-based solution. But is that the best approach, in terms of development time and maintenance cost?
The basic question here is when to use a declarative query language (XQuery in the case of modern EII) versus constructing code in a procedural language (a workflow language in the case of EAI). The lessons from the relational database revolution are clear: When applicable, a declarative approach offers significant advantages. Instead of hand-constructing a "query plan" (EAI workflow) to extract the needed data from each of the data sources in some manually predefined order, the EII approach allows a single, smaller, and simpler declarative query to be written.
The resulting benefits should be obvious. First, the user does not need to build each query plan by hand, which could involve a considerable effort. Instead, the user specifies (when defining the core view) what data sources are relevant and what logical conditions relate and characterize the data to be retrieved. Second, queries can be optimized automatically by the EII middleware, resulting in an optimal query execution plan (order of accessing the sources, queries or methods to extract the data, etc.) for each different query. For example, using EAI, one central workflow could be written to retrieve all of the customer information in Part I's example, and then other workflows could be written to first call this workflow and then further filter the results. However, in the EII approach, the query processor will (for each query) prune out irrelevant data sources as well as push SQL selection conditions (such as only retrieving "Open" support cases in Listing 2 of Part I) down to any RDBMS data sources. Third, as the data sources change over time in terms of their schemas, statistics, or performance, the EII user will not be forced to rewrite all of his or her queries. Simply maintaining each base view query and re-optimizing the other queries will adapt their query execution plans to the new situation. In contrast, in the case of EAI, many workflows would have to be rewritten to handle most such changes.
There really isn't an either/or choice to be made between EAI and EII at all. Both technologies have critical roles to play in an overall enterprise integration solution. These technologies are complementary: EII provides ease of data integration, while EAI provides ease of process integration. EII is appropriate for composing integrated views and queries over enterprise data. EAI is the appropriate technology for creating composite applications that orchestrate the functional capabilities of a set of related but independent applications, Web services, etc. Moreover, EII can be used to handily augment EAI in scenarios where workflows need to access integrated data views. For example, if our electronics retailer wanted its order process to offer free shipping to customers who have ordered more than $1,000 of goods during the year and who have accumulated more than 5,000 reward points, the integrated view of customer from Part I could be used to easily access the relevant information from within the order entry workflow.
What About ETL?
Another technology related to EII is ETL. In fact, ETL tools are designed precisely for the purpose of integrating data from multiple sources. These tools are therefore another category of software that naturally leads to a "why bother with EII?" question - why isn't ETL technology the answer? As you'll see, the answer is again that both technologies have their place in modern IT architectures.
ETL tools are designed for use in moving data from a variety of sources into a data warehouse for offline analysis and reporting purposes. As the name suggests, ETL tools provide facilities for extracting data from a source; transforming that data into a more suitable form for inclusion in the data warehouse, possibly cleansing it in the process; and then loading the transformed data into the warehouse's database. Typical ETL tools are therefore focused on supporting the design and administration of data migration, cleansing, and transformation processes. These are often batch processes that occur on a daily or weekly basis.
Data warehouses and the ETL tools that feed them are invaluable for enabling businesses to aggregate and analyze historical information. For example, our electronics retailer might very well want to keep track of customer data, sales data, and product issue data over a period of years in order to analyze customer behavior by geographic region over time, improve their credit card risk model, and so on. A data warehouse is the appropriate place to retain such data and run large analytical queries against it, and ETL technology is the right technology today for creating, cleaning, and maintaining the data in the warehouse. However, ETL is not the right technology for building applications that need access to current operational data - it doesn't support the declarative creation of views or real-time access to operational data through queries.
For applications that need to integrate current information, Part I of this article showed how XQuery can be used to declaratively specify reusable views that aggregate data from multiple operational stores and how XQuery can be used to write XML queries over such integrated views. We also explained how standard database query processing techniques, including view expansion, predicate pushdown, and distributed query optimization, can be applied to XQuery, making XQuery-based EII an excellent technological fit for such applications.
Clearly, both ETL and EII technologies have important roles to play in today's enterprise. ETL serves to feed data warehouses, while EII is an enabler for applications that need timely access to current, integrated information from a variety of operational enterprise data sources. As with EAI, there are also cases where the two technologies come together. As one example, an ETL tool could be used to help create and maintain a cross-reference table to relate different notions of "customer id" for use in creating XQuery-based EII views across different back-end systems. As another example, an ETL-fed data warehouse could be used to build a portal for analyzing the historical behavior of a company's top customers, with an EII tool used to allow click-through inspection of the customers' purchases in the past 24 hours.
Putting XQuery-Based EII to Work
For the reasons discussed in this article, XQuery-based EII middleware is an emerging product segment that promises to deliver the tools and technology needed in this important space. One commercially available XQuery-based middleware product is BEA Liquid Data for WebLogic. Liquid Data is capable of accessing data from relational database management systems, Web services, packaged applications (through J2EE CA adapters and application views), XML files, XML messages, and, through a custom function mechanism, most any other data source as well. For illustration purposes, the architecture of Liquid Data is depicted in Figure 1. Liquid Data provides default XML views of all of its data sources and provides an XQuery-based graphical view and query editor for use in integrating and enhancing information drawn from one or more data sources. It includes a distributed query processing engine as well as providing advanced features such as support for query result caching and both data-source-level and stored query-level access control.
As a final example of the applicability of XQuery to enterprise information integration problems, we'll describe an actual customer integration exercise where Liquid Data was put to use. In that project, a large telecommunications vendor wanted to create a single view of order information for one of its business divisions. The goal of the project was to make integrated order information available to the division's customers (other businesses) through a Web portal, enabling their customers to log in and check on the status of their orders, as well as making information available to the division's own customer service representatives.
The division had data distributed across multiple systems, including a relational database containing order summary information and two different order management systems. Order details were kept in one or the other of the two order management systems, depending on the type of order. Functionality-wise, a limited view of order details was provided through the customer order status portal that the division built using Liquid Data, whereas customer service representatives were permitted to see all of the order data through their portal. In both cases, it was possible to search for order information by various combinations of purchase order number, date range, and order.
The use of XQuery-based EII technology enabled the customer to complete their portal project in much less time than they had expected it to take with traditional technologies, and their total cost of ownership was also lower due to the reusability of Liquid Data assets and the low cost of maintenance enabled by EII.
In this article, we have explained how XQuery is beginning to transform the integration world, making it possible to finally tackle the enterprise information integration problem where past attempts have failed. In Part I we provided an overview of XQuery and illustrated how it could be used to integrate the disparate information sources of a hypothetical electronics retailer. In Part II we discussed the relationship of EII to EAI and ETL technologies and then briefly presented BEA's XQuery-based EII product and described one of the customer projects in which it was used.
The 3rd International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that its Call for Papers is now open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
Jan. 31, 2015 02:00 AM EST Reads: 10,652
Scott Jenson leads a project called The Physical Web within the Chrome team at Google. Project members are working to take the scalability and openness of the web and use it to talk to the exponentially exploding range of smart devices. Nearly every company today working on the IoT comes up with the same basic solution: use my server and you'll be fine. But if we really believe there will be trillions of these devices, that just can't scale. We need a system that is open a scalable and by using the URL as a basic building block, we open this up and get the same resilience that the web enjoys.
Jan. 31, 2015 02:00 AM EST Reads: 4,953
In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect at GE, and Ibrahim Gokcen, who leads GE's advanced IoT analytics, focused on the Internet of Things / Industrial Internet and how to make it operational for business end-users. Learn about the challenges posed by machine and sensor data and how to marry it with enterprise data. They also discussed the tips and tricks to provide the Industrial Internet as an end-user consumable service using Big Data Analytics and Industrial Cloud.
Jan. 31, 2015 01:00 AM EST Reads: 4,598
Things are being built upon cloud foundations to transform organizations. This CEO Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Roger Strukhoff, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo conference chair, addressed the big issues involving these technologies and, more important, the results they will achieve. Rodney Rogers, chairman and CEO of Virtustream; Brendan O'Brien, co-founder of Aria Systems, Bart Copeland, president and CEO of ActiveState Software; Jim Cowie, chief scientist at Dyn; Dave Wagstaff, VP and chief architect at BSQUARE Corporation; Seth Proctor, CTO of NuoDB, Inc.; and Andris Gailitis, C...
Jan. 31, 2015 01:00 AM EST Reads: 4,368
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff happens, where data lives and where the interface lies. For instance, it's a mix of architectural styles ...
Jan. 31, 2015 12:30 AM EST Reads: 4,952
The Industrial Internet revolution is now underway, enabled by connected machines and billions of devices that communicate and collaborate. The massive amounts of Big Data requiring real-time analysis is flooding legacy IT systems and giving way to cloud environments that can handle the unpredictable workloads. Yet many barriers remain until we can fully realize the opportunities and benefits from the convergence of machines and devices with Big Data and the cloud, including interoperability, data security and privacy.
Jan. 30, 2015 10:00 PM EST Reads: 4,473
Technology is enabling a new approach to collecting and using data. This approach, commonly referred to as the "Internet of Things" (IoT), enables businesses to use real-time data from all sorts of things including machines, devices and sensors to make better decisions, improve customer service, and lower the risk in the creation of new revenue opportunities. In his General Session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Dave Wagstaff, Vice President and Chief Architect at BSQUARE Corporation, discuss the real benefits to focus on, how to understand the requirements of a successful solution, the flow of ...
Jan. 30, 2015 03:45 PM EST Reads: 4,379
Cloud Expo 2014 TV commercials will feature @ThingsExpo, which was launched in June, 2014 at New York City's Javits Center as the largest 'Internet of Things' event in the world.
Jan. 30, 2015 03:15 PM EST Reads: 5,151
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Jan. 30, 2015 02:30 PM EST Reads: 4,554
Performance is the intersection of power, agility, control, and choice. If you value performance, and more specifically consistent performance, you need to look beyond simple virtualized compute. Many factors need to be considered to create a truly performant environment. In his General Session at 15th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Sr. Software Architect at SoftLayer, discussed how to take advantage of a multitude of compute options and platform features to make cloud the cornerstone of your online presence.
Jan. 30, 2015 02:15 PM EST Reads: 5,290
In this Women in Technology Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Anne Plese, Senior Consultant, Cloud Product Marketing at Verizon Enterprise, Esmeralda Swartz, CMO at MetraTech; Evelyn de Souza, Data Privacy and Compliance Strategy Leader at Cisco Systems; Seema Jethani, Director of Product Management at Basho Technologies; Victoria Livschitz, CEO of Qubell Inc.; Anne Hungate, Senior Director of Software Quality at DIRECTV, discussed what path they took to find their spot within the technology industry and how do they see opportunities for other women in their area of expertise.
Jan. 30, 2015 01:45 PM EST Reads: 3,781
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
Jan. 30, 2015 01:15 PM EST Reads: 3,110
DevOps Summit 2015 New York, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that it is now accepting Keynote Proposals. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long development cycles that produce software that is obsolete at launch. DevOps may be disruptive, but it is essential.
Jan. 30, 2015 01:15 PM EST Reads: 4,381
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
Jan. 30, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 6,162
“With easy-to-use SDKs for Atmel’s platforms, IoT developers can now reap the benefits of realtime communication, and bypass the security pitfalls and configuration complexities that put IoT deployments at risk,” said Todd Greene, founder & CEO of PubNub. PubNub will team with Atmel at CES 2015 to launch full SDK support for Atmel’s MCU, MPU, and Wireless SoC platforms. Atmel developers now have access to PubNub’s secure Publish/Subscribe messaging with guaranteed ¼ second latencies across PubNub’s 14 global points-of-presence. PubNub delivers secure communication through firewalls, proxy ser...
Jan. 30, 2015 12:45 PM EST Reads: 2,588
We’re no longer looking to the future for the IoT wave. It’s no longer a distant dream but a reality that has arrived. It’s now time to make sure the industry is in alignment to meet the IoT growing pains – cooperate and collaborate as well as innovate. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, will examine the key ingredients to IoT success and identify solutions to challenges the industry is facing. The deep industry expertise behind this presentation will provide attendees with a leading edge view of rapidly emerging IoT oppor...
Jan. 30, 2015 12:45 PM EST Reads: 2,905
Connected devices and the Internet of Things are getting significant momentum in 2014. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, examined three key elements that together will drive mass adoption of the IoT before the end of 2015. The first element is the recent advent of robust open source protocols (like AllJoyn and WebRTC) that facilitate M2M communication. The second is broad availability of flexible, cost-effective storage designed to handle the massive surge in back-end data in a world where timely analytics is e...
Jan. 30, 2015 12:00 PM EST Reads: 4,537
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jeff Kaplan, Managing Director of THINKstrategies, will examine why IT must finally fulfill its role in support of its SBUs or face a new round of...
Jan. 30, 2015 11:45 AM EST Reads: 4,651
"There is a natural synchronization between the business models, the IoT is there to support ,” explained Brendan O'Brien, Co-founder and Chief Architect of Aria Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at the 15th International Cloud Expo®, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Jan. 30, 2015 11:45 AM EST Reads: 4,968
The BPM world is going through some evolution or changes where traditional business process management solutions really have nowhere to go in terms of development of the road map. In this demo at 15th Cloud Expo, Kyle Hansen, Director of Professional Services at AgilePoint, shows AgilePoint’s unique approach to dealing with this market circumstance by developing a rapid application composition or development framework.
Jan. 30, 2015 11:30 AM EST Reads: 3,739