Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

Apache Authors: Liz McMillan, Mohamed El-Refaey, Ajay Budhraja, Don MacVittie, AppDynamics Blog

Related Topics: ColdFusion, Apache

ColdFusion: Article

Web Services Using ColdFusion and Apache CXF

Enabling Web Services through Java

Since its emergence, Web Service technology has gone a long way towards perfecting itself and finding its right application in the real world. With the maturity of the specifications, Web Service technology, with its power of interoperability, is now the major enabling technology of SOA, which is being adopted by more and more enterprises to build their application integration infrastructure.

Developing Web Services involves a variety of technologies, XML processing, SOAP, and WSDL, to name a few. Luckily, there are frameworks that target handling theses kinds of middleware functions, freeing up developers to focus on the business logic.

Nowadays, many Web Service frameworks exist for all kinds of programming languages. Some of them are open source, others are commercially available. Some examples of such frameworks are Apache Axis and Axis2, WS02 Web Services Framework (WSF), Java Web Services Development Pack (GlassFish), JBossWS, and XINS.

Being one of the Web Service frameworks for Java, Apache CXF is an open source framework developed by the Apache Software Foundation. It's a continuation and merging of two open source projects, Codehaus' XFire project and ObjectWeb's Celtix project. When this was written, the stable version was 2.0.

CXF enables the creation of Web Services using Java technologies. It supports a variety of Web Service standards including WS-I Basic Profile 1.0, WS-Addressing, WS-Policy, WS-ReliableMessaging, and WS-Security.

CXF supports transport protocols like HTTP and JMS. The messaging formats supported include SOAP, XML, RESTFul HTTP, and CORBA. Besides JAXB data binding, it also supports Aegis binding.

CXF is JAX-WS (JSR 224)-compliant and version 2.0 has passed the TCK for JAX-WS 2.0. It makes intensive use of Java 5 annotations and so requires JDK/JRE 5.0 and above.

CXF leverages the Spring application framework for bean management. Endpoints and service clients can be managed as Spring beans.

In the first section of this article, a step-by-step Web Service example using CXF is presented. Some of CXF's basic features are revealed while going through the steps of creating the example. Then we'll touch on some of the unique features of CXF, including RESTful service support and Spring integration. At the end, a brief performance test will compare CXF with JBossWS and the JAX-WS Reference Implementation (RI).

An Example: Getting Movie Show Times
In this example, we'll build a Web Service that lets a client system query for movie show times using the ZIP code entered by a user. For demonstration purposes, most of the irrelevant details are ignored.

CXF supports both code-first development and contract-first development. While code-first development is a handy feature, and most developers find it more straightforward and easier to get start with, it has a vital weakness.

There are several reasons for this. First, a key aspect in successfully developing Web Services is to determine its granularity. Considering the fact that the major application of Web Services is to implement SOA solution at a really high level (e.g., at the enterprise level), the granularity couldn't be too small. In contrast are the Java classes and methods, which tend to be very fine-grained, and are often designed at the very low level (i.e. the class level). Secondly, Web Services bare the nature of language neutral. Building a service from a specific language (like Java) and transforming it into a language-neutral form through some tools would, in some cases, bring over language-specific features, which will degrade the language-neutral nature, thus hurt the interoperability, of the service. Lastly, from a design point of view, service-oriented principles are significantly different from object-oriented paradigms. Although an individual service might be realized using OO principles and techniques, the interaction between services rarely using any of them.

Due to the aforementioned reasons, code-first development will never let you get to the spirit of service-oriented development because developing in Java code and developing in WSDL requires different mindset. Developing with Java code-first and avoiding WSDL as much as possible will guarantee that you will build mediocre software at the best. This is especially true when it comes to designing and developing a SOA solution rather than just individual services.

With that said, let's start with contract-first development for our example, the first step of which is to create the contract - the WSDL document that describes the service.

WSDL Document
Listing 1 shows a segment of the WSDL document. In this document a service called MovieService is defined. This service has only one operation GetShowtimesForZip. The input of this operation is a message containing the ZIP code that the user entered, and the response is a list of theaters and movies along with show times.

The types are defined in a separated XML Schema document and are imported using <xsd:import> statement. The schema document isn't listed here to avoid lengthy text.

Nothing is really special about this WSDL document. Let's now generate the service interface and the service endpoint interface (SEI) from the WSDL document.

Service and Service Endpoint Interfaces
With the WSDL document ready, our next step is to generate server-side Java code from it. CXF provides a tool called wsdl2java that can be used to generate fully annotated Java code from a WSDL document. This tool operates according to the JAX-WS rules for WSDL <--> Java mapping, and its data binding mechanism conforms to JAXB (JSR 22). The tool comes with a set of optional arguments that allow control of the behavior of the tool.

The WSDL document used to generate the Java code has to have a valid portType element, but it doesn't require a binding element or a service element.

The simplest form of running the tool on the command line is listed in Listing 2.

You can specify the package of the generated code using the -p option as shown in Listing 3.

JAX-WS defines an XML-based binding language that can be used to customize the WSDL to Java bindings. The wsdl2java tool implements this feature using the -b option. Listing 4 shows how to specify a JAX-WS binding file for customization.

You can ask the tool to generate an Ant build file for use in your application. To do so, use the -ant option as shown in Listing 5:

Or you can define your own Ant macro. A sample of such a macro is included in the CXF distribution. Listing 6 shows a modified version of it.


More Stories By Jinsong Yang

Jinsong Yang is a senior application engineer at Warnerbros. Advanced Digital Services, and is a Sun Certified Enterprise Architect. He has devoted the last six-plus years to designing and integrating large-scale Java EE applications. He holds an MS in computer science from UCLA.

Comments (3) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
kuldeep_saini83 08/29/09 08:33:00 PM EDT

Hi,
I was searching some article which can help me to implement web service using contract first approach.
I found this article very useful and informative.
Just one thing, code snippets should be complete so that any one can just take that code and able to run WB services.
Still it helped me lot and finally i was able to run WB by contract first approach.

Thaanks...!!!

yogesh 10/06/08 02:27:38 PM EDT

Hey Yang,
Nice article. But how actually we handle transaction in case of spring and cxf?

@ThingsExpo Stories
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
MuleSoft has announced the findings of its 2015 Connectivity Benchmark Report on the adoption and business impact of APIs. The findings suggest traditional businesses are quickly evolving into "composable enterprises" built out of hundreds of connected software services, applications and devices. Most are embracing the Internet of Things (IoT) and microservices technologies like Docker. A majority are integrating wearables, like smart watches, and more than half plan to generate revenue with APIs within the next year.
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect their organization.
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
Converging digital disruptions is creating a major sea change - Cisco calls this the Internet of Everything (IoE). IoE is the network connection of People, Process, Data and Things, fueled by Cloud, Mobile, Social, Analytics and Security, and it represents a $19Trillion value-at-stake over the next 10 years. In her keynote at @ThingsExpo, Manjula Talreja, VP of Cisco Consulting Services, discussed IoE and the enormous opportunities it provides to public and private firms alike. She will share what businesses must do to thrive in the IoE economy, citing examples from several industry sectors.
There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
Akana has released Envision, an enhanced API analytics platform that helps enterprises mine critical insights across their digital eco-systems, understand their customers and partners and offer value-added personalized services. “In today’s digital economy, data-driven insights are proving to be a key differentiator for businesses. Understanding the data that is being tunneled through their APIs and how it can be used to optimize their business and operations is of paramount importance,” said Alistair Farquharson, CTO of Akana.
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a "Make or Buy" decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud business applications and services across multiple cloud delivery models.
The enterprise market will drive IoT device adoption over the next five years. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Greenough, an analyst at BI Intelligence, division of Business Insider, analyzed how companies will adopt IoT products and the associated cost of adopting those products. John Greenough is the lead analyst covering the Internet of Things for BI Intelligence- Business Insider’s paid research service. Numerous IoT companies have cited his analysis of the IoT. Prior to joining BI Intelligence, he worked analyzing bank technology for Corporate Insight and The Clearing House Payment...
"Optimal Design is a technology integration and product development firm that specializes in connecting devices to the cloud," stated Joe Wascow, Co-Founder & CMO of Optimal Design, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CommVault has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. A singular vision – a belief in a better way to address current and future data management needs – guides CommVault in the development of Singular Information Management® solutions for high-performance data protection, universal availability and simplified management of data on complex storage networks. CommVault's exclusive single-platform architecture gives companies unp...
Electric Cloud and Arynga have announced a product integration partnership that will bring Continuous Delivery solutions to the automotive Internet-of-Things (IoT) market. The joint solution will help automotive manufacturers, OEMs and system integrators adopt DevOps automation and Continuous Delivery practices that reduce software build and release cycle times within the complex and specific parameters of embedded and IoT software systems.
"ciqada is a combined platform of hardware modules and server products that lets people take their existing devices or new devices and lets them be accessible over the Internet for their users," noted Geoff Engelstein of ciqada, a division of Mars International, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.