|By Jack Norris||
|August 19, 2012 08:15 AM EDT||
We have entered the "Age of Big Data" according to a recent New York Times article. This comes as no surprise to most organizations already struggling with the onslaught of data coming from an increasing number of sources and at an increasing rate. The 2011 IDC Digital Universe Study reported that data is growing faster than Moore's Law. This trend points to a paradigm shift in how organizations process data where isolated islands and silos are being replaced by large clusters of commodity servers that keep data and compute resources together.
Another way of looking at this paradigm shift is that the growing volume and velocity of data require a new approach to networked computing. A good example of this change is found at Google. The industry now takes Google's dominance for granted, but when Google launched its beta search engine in 1998, the company was late entering the market. At the time, Yahoo! was dominant; other contenders included infoseek, excite, Lycos, Ask Jeeves and AltaVista (dominating technical searches). Within two years, Google was the dominant search provider. It wasn't until 2003, when Google published a paper on MapReduce, that the world got a glimpse into Google's back-end architecture.
Google's architecture revealed how the company was able to index significantly more data, to get far better results faster, and to achieve these superior results much more efficiently and cost-effectively than all competitors. The shift Google made was to divide complex data analysis tasks into simple subtasks that could be performed in parallel on commodity servers. Separate processes were being used to Map the data, and then Reduce it into interim or final results. This MapReduce framework would eventually become available to organizations through distributions of Apache Hadoop.
A Brief History of Hadoop
After reading Google's paper in 2003, Yahoo engineer Doug Cutting developed a Java-based implementation of MapReduce, and named it after his son's stuffed elephant, Hadoop. In 2006, Hadoop became a subproject of Lucene (a popular text search library) at the Apache Software Foundation (www.apache.org), and became its own top-level Apache project in 2008.
Essentially, Hadoop provides a way to capture, organize, store, search, share, analyze and visualize disparate data sources (structured, semi-structured and unstructured) across a large cluster of commodity computers, and is designed to scale up from dozens to thousands of servers, each offering local computation and storage.
While there are several elements that are now part of Hadoop, two are fundamental to its operation. The first is the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), which serves as the primary storage system. HDFS replicates and distributes the blocks of source data to the compute nodes throughout the cluster of servers to be analyzed by one or more applications. The second is MapReduce, which creates a software framework and a programming model for writing applications capable of processing vast amounts of distributed data in parallel on very large clusters.
The open source nature of Apache Hadoop creates an ecosystem that facilitates constant advancements in its capabilities, performance, reliability and ease of use. These enhancements can be made by any individual or organization-a global community of contributors-and are then either contributed to the basic Apache library or made available in a separate (often free) commercial distribution.
In effect, Hadoop is a complete system or "stack" for data analysis. The stack includes not only the HDFS and MapReduce foundation, but also job management, development tools, schedulers, machine learning libraries, etc.
KISS: Keep It Simple, Scalable
In a paper titled The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data, the authors (all research directors from Google) make a contrast between the elegant simplicity of physics (with equations like E = mc2) and other disciplines, noting that, "... sciences that involve human beings rather than elementary particles have proven more resistant to elegant mathematics."
The fact that simple formulas are fully capable of explaining the complex natural world, while remaining elusive in understanding human behavior, is fundamental to why Hadoop is gaining in popularity. The paper notes the frustration of economists, who lack similar simple equations or models, and explores advances being made in fields like natural language processing-a notoriously complex area that has been studied for years with many attempts at artificial intelligence as a means to gain some insight.
The authors found that relatively simple algorithms applied to massive datasets produced stunning results. One example involves scene completion. An algorithm was used to eliminate something in a picture, a car for instance, and then based on a corpus of thousands of pictures, fill in the missing background. The algorithm performed rather poorly until the corpus was increased to millions of photos. With sufficient data, the same, simple algorithm performed extremely well. This need to find patterns and fill in the "missing pieces" in any puzzle is a common theme in many data analytics applications today.
Data analytics also confronts another inherent complexity: the growth in unstructured and semi-structured data. The sources of unstructured data, such as log files, social media, videos, etc., are growing in both their size and importance. But even structured data that goes through a series of changes eventually loses some or all of its structure. Traditional analytic techniques require considerable preprocessing of unstructured and semi-structured data before being able to produce results, and the results can be wrong or misleading if the preprocessing is somehow flawed.
The ability of Hadoop to employ simple algorithms and obtain meaningful results when analyzing unstructured, semi-structured and structured data in its raw form is unprecedented-and currently unparalleled. MapReduce enables data to be analyzed in an incremental fashion (and with parallel processing) without any need to engage in complex data transformations or to otherwise preprocess any data sources, or to create any schemas or aggregate any data in advance. Sometimes the interim results can be quite revealing on their own, and any unexpected results can be used to further fine-tune additional analysis. In fact, Hadoop was designed to accommodate virtually all forms of data directly, thus eliminating the need to engage in extraordinary measures before being able to unlock the value hidden deeply within.
The Price/Performance of Data Analytics
Not only does Hadoop deliver superior data analytics capabilities and results, it does so (as Google found) with an infrastructure that is far more cost-effective than traditional data analysis tools. The reason is that scaling data analytics capabilities has long been subject to the 80/20 rule: Big gains can be achieved with little initial effort (and cost), but the returns diminish as the datasets grow to become Big Data.
In stark contrast, Hadoop can scale linearly, which is the key to both effective and cost-effective data analytics. As datasets grow, traditional data analysis environments scale in an exponential fashion, causing the additional cost required to gain additional insight to eventually become prohibitive. With Hadoop, by contrast, the cluster of commodity (read: inexpensive) servers with direct-attached storage scales linearly with the growth in the number and sizes of datasets.
Hadoop's ability to satisfy these prerequisites well is the reason for its growing popularity in Web-based businesses and data-intensive organizations, as well as at aggressive start-ups. For the former, the need to wrestle with truly Big Data justifies the need for a data analytics environment like Hadoop. For the latter, the lack of anything legacy makes it easy to benefit from Hadoop's advantages.
One major challenge to Hadoop adoption, however, remains its file system. HDFS is an append-only storage that requires data to be batch loaded in a Hadoop cluster and then later exported post-processing for use by other applications that don't support the HDFS API. And Big Data can be difficult and costly to move back and forth in this fashion owing to the inherent duplication of data across the "semantic wall" between the existing and Hadoop infrastructures.
Another barrier to production adoption of Hadoop in larger organizations involves the extraordinary measures required to make the environment dependable. Constant care is needed to ensure that single points of failure (especially in the NameNode and JobTracker) cannot cause catastrophe, and that in the case of data loss, data can be re-loaded into the Hadoop cluster.
Breaking Through the Barriers
These problems with Hadoop are, themselves, becoming part of the past. Open source communities can be quite large, creating a vibrant ecosystem. This is the case with Hadoop, where several companies are now providing commercial distributions based on open source Hadoop.
The growing number of commercial Hadoop distributions available is systematically breaking through the barriers to widespread adoption. In general, these distributions provide enhancements that make Hadoop easier to integrate into the enterprise, as well as more enterprise-class in its operation, performance and reliability. One way of achieving these enhancements is to use existing and standard communications protocols as a foundation to enable more seamless integration between legacy and Hadoop environments.
Such a common foundation facilitates making the paradigm shift in data analytics in virtually any organization. It eliminates the need to throw data back and forth over a "semantic wall" by tearing down that wall. The compatibility afforded also extends beyond the physical infrastructure and into development environments and routine operating procedures, especially those involving data protection, such as snapshots and mirroring. With standards-based file access into the Hadoop cluster, existing applications and tools, and even ordinary browsers are able to access the data directly and in real-time (vs. Hadoop's traditional batch processing.
The End - or Just the Beginning
The data analytics paradigm is changing, and the change presents a real opportunity for established organizations to take full advantage of some new and powerful capabilities without sacrificing any existing ones. Just as Google was able to do, Hadoop makes it possible for any organization to gain a significant competitive edge by taking full advantage of the insight provided by this paradigm shift.
Hadoop is indeed a game-changing technology, and Hadoop is now itself changing with the advent of enterprise-class commercial distributions. By making Hadoop more mission-critical in its operation (potentially with the same or an even lower total cost of ownership), these "next-generation" solutions make beginning the shift to the new data analytics paradigm less risky and more rewarding than ever before.
Cloud is not a commodity. And no matter what you call it, computing doesn’t come out of the sky. It comes from physical hardware inside brick and mortar facilities connected by hundreds of miles of networking cable. And no two clouds are built the same way. SoftLayer gives you the highest performing cloud infrastructure available. One platform that takes data centers around the world that are full of the widest range of cloud computing options, and then integrates and automates everything. Join SoftLayer on June 9 at 16th Cloud Expo to learn about IBM Cloud's SoftLayer platform, explore se...
Mar. 28, 2015 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,552
The WebRTC Summit 2014 New York, to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 16th International Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, Big Data Expo, and DevOps Summit.
Mar. 28, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,421
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the M2M space. This really allows some room for influential individuals to create more high value inter...
Mar. 28, 2015 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 4,592
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on Twitter at @MicroservicesE
Mar. 28, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,360
Wearable technology was dominant at this year’s International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) , and MWC was no exception to this trend. New versions of favorites, such as the Samsung Gear (three new products were released: the Gear 2, the Gear 2 Neo and the Gear Fit), shared the limelight with new wearables like Pebble Time Steel (the new premium version of the company’s previously released smartwatch) and the LG Watch Urbane. The most dramatic difference at MWC was an emphasis on presenting wearables as fashion accessories and moving away from the original clunky technology associated with t...
Mar. 28, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,193
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
Mar. 28, 2015 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,010
SYS-CON Events announced today that SafeLogic has been named “Bag Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo® New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. SafeLogic provides security products for applications in mobile and server/appliance environments. SafeLogic’s flagship product CryptoComply is a FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic engine designed to secure data on servers, workstations, appliances, mobile devices, and in the Cloud.
Mar. 28, 2015 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,356
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
Mar. 28, 2015 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,159
SOA Software has changed its name to Akana. With roots in Web Services and SOA Governance, Akana has established itself as a leader in API Management and is expanding into cloud integration as an alternative to the traditional heavyweight enterprise service bus (ESB). The company recently announced that it achieved more than 90% year-over-year growth. As Akana, the company now addresses the evolution and diversification of SOA, unifying security, management, and DevOps across SOA, APIs, microservices, and more.
Mar. 28, 2015 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,001
After making a doctor’s appointment via your mobile device, you receive a calendar invite. The day of your appointment, you get a reminder with the doctor’s location and contact information. As you enter the doctor’s exam room, the medical team is equipped with the latest tablet containing your medical history – he or she makes real time updates to your medical file. At the end of your visit, you receive an electronic prescription to your preferred pharmacy and can schedule your next appointment.
Mar. 28, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 572
GENBAND has announced that SageNet is leveraging the Nuvia platform to deliver Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) to its large base of retail and enterprise customers. Nuvia’s cloud-based solution provides SageNet’s customers with a full suite of business communications and collaboration tools. Two large national SageNet retail customers have recently signed up to deploy the Nuvia platform and the company will continue to sell the service to new and existing customers. Nuvia’s capabilities include HD voice, video, multimedia messaging, mobility, conferencing, Web collaboration, deskt...
Mar. 28, 2015 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,400
The Open Compute Project is a collective effort by Facebook and a number of players in the datacenter industry to bring lessons learned from the social media giant's giant IT deployment to the rest of the world. Datacenters account for 3% of global electricity consumption – about the same as all of Switzerland or the Czech Republic -- according to people I met at the recent Open Compute Summit in San Jose. With increasing mobility at the edge of the cloud and vast new dataflows being predicted with the growth of the Internet of Things (and The Coming Age of Many Zettabytes) in the near...
Mar. 28, 2015 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,783
The list of ‘new paradigm’ technologies that now surrounds us appears to be at an all time high. From cloud computing and Big Data analytics to Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and the Internet of Things (IoT), today we have to deal with what the industry likes to call ‘paradigm shifts’ at every level of IT. This is disruption; of course, we understand that – change is almost always disruptive.
Mar. 27, 2015 08:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,009
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cisco, the worldwide leader in IT that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cisco makes amazing things happen by connecting the unconnected. Cisco has shaped the future of the Internet by becoming the worldwide leader in transforming how people connect, communicate and collaborate. Cisco and our partners are building the platform for the Internet of Everything by connecting the...
Mar. 27, 2015 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,129
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
Mar. 27, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,679
Temasys has announced senior management additions to its team. Joining are David Holloway as Vice President of Commercial and Nadine Yap as Vice President of Product. Over the past 12 months Temasys has doubled in size as it adds new customers and expands the development of its Skylink platform. Skylink leads the charge to move WebRTC, traditionally seen as a desktop, browser based technology, to become a ubiquitous web communications technology on web and mobile, as well as Internet of Things compatible devices.
Mar. 27, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,728
SYS-CON Events announced today that robomq.io will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. robomq.io is an interoperable and composable platform that connects any device to any application. It helps systems integrators and the solution providers build new and innovative products and service for industries requiring monitoring or intelligence from devices and sensors.
Mar. 27, 2015 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,357
Docker is an excellent platform for organizations interested in running microservices. It offers portability and consistency between development and production environments, quick provisioning times, and a simple way to isolate services. In his session at DevOps Summit at 16th Cloud Expo, Shannon Williams, co-founder of Rancher Labs, will walk through these and other benefits of using Docker to run microservices, and provide an overview of RancherOS, a minimalist distribution of Linux designed expressly to run Docker. He will also discuss Rancher, an orchestration and service discovery platf...
Mar. 27, 2015 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,370
Sonus Networks introduced the Sonus WebRTC Services Solution, a virtualized Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) offer, purpose-built for the Cloud. The WebRTC Services Solution provides signaling from WebRTC-to-WebRTC applications and interworking from WebRTC-to-Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), delivering advanced real-time communications capabilities on mobile applications and on websites, which are accessible via a browser.
Mar. 27, 2015 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,682
SYS-CON Events announced today that Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Proven by the world’s most demanding enterprises, including AAA NCNU, Constant Contact, Falck, Hootsuite, Pitney Bowes, Telekom Denmark, and VMware, Aria helps enterprises grow their recurring revenue businesses. With Aria’s end-to-end active monetization platform, global brands can get to market faster with a wider variety of products and services, while maximizin...
Mar. 27, 2015 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,524